How can more food and biomass be obtained from the oceans in a way that does not deprive future generations of their benefits? This question on Food from the Oceans was put to the European Scientific Advice Mechanism (SAM) by Commissioner Vella, Commissioner for Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, on behalf of the European Commission. It was taken up by the SAM High-Level Group of Scientific Advisors, which provides independent scientific advice to the College of European Commissioners to support their decision-making. The SAPEA Consortium, an integral part of the Scientific Advice Mechanism, was asked to produce an evidence review report to support the scientific opinion of the High-Level Group.

This evidence review report examines the question of how the oceans can help satisfy the global demand for food, either through the direct production of food or through the harvesting of biomass (wild or cultivated) that can be used as feed in food production. It also addresses how the socioeconomic context can support more efficient food production, as part of a systems-based approach.