ALLEA as the European Federation of 53 National Academies of Sciences, Social Sciences and the Humanities in 40 European countries welcomes the European Commission’s recognition, visible in the text of the Green Paper, that research and innovation are key drivers for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth as it is aimed for in Europe and as part of Europe’s engagement with the wider world. It will be important that all three elements – smart, sustainable, inclusive – will be treated as equally important in the transition to the “Innovation Union”.